Protecting critical infrastructures from cyber-attack and cyber warfare case
The response must be 200 words and use at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include texts, articles, presentations, the Bible, blogs, videos, etc.
Johnson, T. A. (2015). Cybersecurity: Protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN: 9781482239225.
Pichtel, J. (2016). Terrorism and WMDs (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN: 9781498738989.
Weapons of Mass destruction are capable of causing injuring or the extermination of enormous amounts of people, in addition to the destruction of structures or the environment. These devices come in the form of explosives, poisons gas, grenades, bombs, or any device capable of inflicting disease, the release radiation, or cause serious bodily harm or death. These types of weapons include biological agents, radiological materials, nuclear devices, explosives abbreviated as CBRNE. Examples of chemical are chlorine and hydrogen cyanide, biological weapons would include anthrax or Ebola virus, nuclear radiological include uranium and explosive weapons would include a pipe bomb, C-4 and ammonium nitrate-fuel oil.
The advantages for those using various chemical or biological agents, are the availability of the elements, coupled with the trivial knowledge required to devise these weapons. Another advantage of using some CBRNE agents, is their ability to be dispersed in mass volumes covering large area far from the sources of release. This also facilitates the CBRNE agents to endure for extended time periods. These strategic attacks also contribute to extensive psychological outcomes. Limitations to of using CBRNE may stem from some weapons which require numerous tasks requiring extensive planning before execution. This observation would argue how technical knowledge, obtaining materials and equipment, safety, risk of detection and the struggles of preserving and disseminating. This process requires large organization. A limitation using chemical agents is how its effectiveness is dependent on large amounts (Pichtel, 2016).
Directed energy weapons (DEW) produce structural damage through the delivery of large amounts of stored energy, from a weapon to its target. A directed energy weapon can affect its target without a projectile. Some DEW’s such as laser weapons, are superior when compared to conventional weapons. Laser weapons travel at light speed, impossible to evade after its deployment, is not affected by gravity, possess limitless ammunition, lacks recoil as well as generating sound or light (Pichtel, 2016). The U.S. Air Force defines DEW’s as technology which has the capability of precisely engage targets, with minute if any, collateral damage or detectible disturbance. This technology and method of unique capabilities, offer our government possibilities of response, other than responding to other nations’ aggressive conduct through conventional approaches (McGonegal, 2020). The escalation of nonlethal and lethal forms, the options to use directed energy weapons, demonstrate the capability to direct targeting with a great likelihood of low collateral damage and reduced risks of civilian casualties (Cannin, (2021).
Our military have examined the use of high-powered microwave weapons with a range of 1meter to as short as 1 millimeter. The non-nuclear electronic magnetic pulse warheads have been used during the Persian Gulf War targeting Iraqi electronic systems. Millimeter wave technology has been used to deter persons without inflicting physical damage. This method also interrupts the attacker’s capability to utilize a weapon. An airport defense system uses high-frequency microwaves engaged toward any hostile projectile in order to defend aircraft. Sonic and ultrasonic arms generate a focused beam of sound or produce an arena of sound. This method may incapacitate its target or temporarily disrupt vision. If used at higher energy levels, there is a potential for damaging a target’s eardrums or produce severe pain or confusion (Pichtel, 2016).
One of the various CBRNE elements which may be the most alarming is chemilcal due to its accessibility to obtaining chemical elements. An example is the accessibility to ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizer, has been used in the past for destruction given is classified an oxidizer however, not an explosive, have been the cause of death with intentional and nonintentional events (Babrauskas, 2018). Our scientists and engineers have developed skills to offset those who do harm to others. When attacks and threats using CBRNE demonstrate levels of sophistication, we develop the ability to counter these measures though knowledge, understanding, creativity in addition to faith and the desire for benevolence. The Lord empowers us with the opportunities to develop the skills necessary to maneuver through challenging situations and conditions. Our faith feeds our hearts with drive and determination. The holy Bible states, “Them hath he filled with wisdom of heart, to work all manner of work, of the engraver, and of the cunning workman, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of them that do any work, and of those that devise cunning work”, (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Exodus 35:35).